Trigonometry is, in theory, the study of triangles. The name itself talks about "measuring" (metric) and triangles (trig).

However, it has now gone well beyond just triangles, and talks about a great deal of geometry in general. In particular, sin and cos (and related functions) turn up everywhere in engineering and physics, even though they are defined simply in terms of right-angled triangles.
Plotting the sin function

Images courtesy of the wikipedia commons.

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