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Pierre de Fermat (1601-1665)

Lawyer and amateur mathematician. Tended to claim a lot and prove a little. Regarded as one of the founders of Algebraic Geometry.

Best known for Fermat's Last Theorem (proved by Wiles and Wiles/Taylor)

but produced Fermat's Little Theorem, which is the basis for most

current public key cryptography.

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One of the Famous People on this site.