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Amalie Emmy Noether (23 March 1882  14 April 1935) was an influential
German mathematician known for her groundbreaking contributions to
abstract algebra and theoretical physics.
Described by David Hilbert, Albert Einstein and others as the most important woman in the history of mathematics, she revolutionized the theories of rings, fields, and algebras. In physics, Noether's theorem explains the fundamental connection between symmetry and conservation laws. 
Noether's (first) theorem (proved in 1915, published in 1918) states
that any differentiable symmetry of the action of a physical system
has a corresponding conservation law. The action of a physical system
is the integral over time of a Lagrangian function (which may or may
not be an integral over space of a Lagrangian density function), from
which the system's behaviour can be determined by the principle of least
action.
Noether's theorem is a fundamental tool of modern theoretical physics and the calculus of variations. 
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