Albert Einstein (1879-1955) was a German-born theoretical physicist.

Although best known for his Special Relativity and General Relativity, his 1921 Nobel Prize in Physics was "for his services to Theoretical Physics, and especially for his discovery of the law of the photoelectric effect."

His "Miraculous Year" was 1905 when he published four ground-breaking papers:

• The Photoelectric Effect (showing light is a particle)
• Brownian Motion (showing matter is comprised of molecules)
• Special Relativity (exploring the weirdnesses of travelling near the speed of light)
• $E=mc^2$ (Energy and mass are equivalent)
He was so famous that his name has passed into common language to refer to someone perceived as extremely clever.